A Review on Chitosan: Ecofriendly Multiple Potential Applications in the Food Industry
Recently, increasing attention has been paid to development of new functional materials for the environment and health, due to the huge waste produced annually by the shellfish processing industry and the absence of waste management which lead to environmental and human health negative effects. The extraction of chitin from crustaceans’ shells may be a solution to minimize the waste and to produce chitosan, a valuable compound which possess biological properties (e.g., anti-cancer, antioxidant, and immune-enhancing) with application in several fields (e.g., food, medical, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, chemicals, agricultural crops, and textile). On the basis of the results of different studies, chitosan, a natural bio-degradable and non- toxic bio-polysaccharide derived from chitin, has potential to be used as natural antimicrobial. Chitosan has exhibited high antimicrobial activity against a wide variety of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, including fungi, Gram-positive and Gram negative bacteria. The aim of the present review was to summarize the most important information on chitin and chitosan as ecofriendly materials from its bioactivity point of view and to highlight various aspects such as characteristics with their potential applications especially focusing on the food industry field.
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